The International Vegetarian Union’s Vegan Nutrition Guide for Adults

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GUIDE INDEX

PART 1 - GETTING TO KNOW VEGETARIANISM

1. DEFINITIONS

2. REASONS THAT LEAD TO VEGETARIANISM

3. THREAT TO GLOBAL HEALTH: CONSUMPTION IMPACT OF ANIMAL DERIVED FOODS

3.1. Food choices and sustainability

3.2. A near future

3.3. Pandemic and epidemics

3.4. Antimicrobial resistance

4. VEGETARIANISM IN THE WORLD


PART 2 — HEALTH EFFECTS

1. A VEGETARIAN’S DIET POTENTIAL FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT

1.1 Fibers
1.2 Microbiota
1.3 Antioxidants, phytochemicals and phytosterols
1.4 Exclusion of animal products
1.5 Saturated fat
1.6 Advanced glycation and lipo-oxidation products
1.7 Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO)
1.8 Thermal action on meat
1.9 N-glycolil-neuramine (Neu5Gc) acid
1.10 Heme Iron

2. PESTICIDES

3. NON-COMMUNICABLE CHRONIC DISEASES
3.1 Systematic reviews and meta-analyses
3.2 Controlled studies
3.2.1 Diabetes
3.2.2 Cardiovascular diseases
3.2.3 Cancer
3.2.3.1 Prostate
3.2.3.2 Breast
3.2.4 Obesity
3.2.5 Anorexia nervosa

PART 3 — SUPPLEMENTATION

There is no intensive animal rearing without intensive supplementation: omnivores are more supplemented than vegetarians.

1. Protein
2. Vitamin B12
3. Calcium
4. Iodine
5. Omega-3
6. Final considerations


PART 4 — NUTRITIONAL ADEQUACY OF THE VEGETARIAN DIET

1. Getting to know food groups
2. Vegetarian food plan


PART 5 — MACRONUTRIENTS


1. Carbohydrates

2. Fats
2.1 Omega-3
2.1.1 Chapter Summary
2.1.2 Functions
2.1.3 Conversion of ALA into EPA and DHA and LA into AA
2.1.4 DHA metabolism in the human body
2.1.5 Factors affecting ALA elongation and desaturation
2.1.6 Individuals with genetic changes
2.1.7 Backconversion: DHA turns into EPA, but EPA doesn't turn into DHA
2.1.8 How much and how to use ALA in vegetarian diet
2.1.9 Nutritional status of omega-3 in vegetarians
2.1.10 Should vegetarians and vegans use DHA supplement?
2.1.11 Do only vegetarians need to pay attention to ALA sources?
2.1.12 Food sources
2.1.13 Does supplemental DHA from microalgae work?
2.1.14 Do not use fish oil as a source of EPA and DHA
2.1.15 IVU position on the use of omega-3 in vegetarians/vegans

3 Proteins
3.1 Chapter Summary
3.1 Protein intake in vegetarian populations
3.2 By ingesting enough calories, we usually ingest enough protein
3.3 The quality of protein
3.4 Little commented positive aspects of plant protein
3.5 About soy
3.6 There is no evidence of protein deficiency in vegetarians
3.7 Amino acids in the vegetarian diet
3.7.1 Needs for amino acids
3.7.2 Vegetables contain all amino acids
3.7.3 Adequacy of amino acids in practice
3.8 Swap meats for legumes
3.9 How to adjust protein and amino acids when adopting a vegetarian diet
3.10 IVU position on the use of proteins and amino acids by vegetarians




PART 6 — MICRONUTRIENTS

1. Vitamin B12
1.1. Chapter Summary
1.2. About Vitamin B12
1.3. Physiology: absorption and transport of B12
1.4. Metabolic actions
1.5. B12 deficiency
1.6. Diagnosis of B12 deficiency
1.7. Adequate vitamin B12 levels
1.8. Statistics on vitamin B12 deficiency
1.9. Recommendation for vitamin B12 intake
1.10. Dietary sources of vitamin B12
1.11. Food factors that interfere with vitamin B12
1.12. Treatment of deficiency
1.12.1. Types of B12
1.12.2. Oral or intramuscular
1.12.3. Oral or sublingual
1.12.4. Toothpaste
1.12.5. Fasting or with food?
1.12.6. Use for how long?
1.13. Expected response to treatment
1.14. Toxicity, side effects and misinterpretations about B12
1.15. Maintaining the good levels achieved
1.16. Deficiency prevention
1.17. When should I start supplementing when becoming vegetarian?
1.18. IVU Position on Vitamin B12 in Vegetarian Diets

2. Vitamin D
2.1. Chapter Summary
2.2. Vitamin D metabolism
2.3. Ingestion recommendations
2.4. Assessment of vitamin D nutritional status
2.5. Food sources of vitamin D
2.6. Vitamin D enrichment and "alternative" foods
2.7. Treatment
2.8. Toxicity
2.9. Studies on vitamin D deficiency in vegetarian groups
2.10. IVU position on vitamin D in vegetarian diets

3. Calcium
3.1. Chapter Summary
3.2. Calcium metabolism
3.3. Recommendation for calcium intake
3.4. How is calcium intake in vegetarian groups?
3.5. Determinants of bone mass
3.6. Bone mass of vegetarian groups
3.7. Antinutritional factors
3.8. Food sources
3.8.1. Enriched foods
3.8.2. Calcium-rich water
3.8.3. Tofu
3.8.4. Bioavailability
3.8.5. Foods richer in calcium
3.9. Calcium supplementation
3.10. IVU position on calcium in vegetarian diets

4. Iron
4.1. Chapter Summary
4.2. Understanding the importance of iron
4.3. Metabolic functions
4.4. Absorption
4.5. Heme iron
4.6. Transportation and storage
4.7. Iron recycling
4.8. Regulation of systemic homeostasis
4.9. Iron deficiency anemia
4.10. Iron deficiency
4.11. Diagnosis of iron deficiency
4.12. Iron nutritional status in vegetarians
4.13. Need for iron intake by vegetarians
4.14. Iron intake by vegetarian populations
4.15. Optimizing iron food sources
4.16. Meat consumption does not meet iron needs
4.17. Iron deficiency is treated with supplement
4.18. IVU position on iron in vegetarian diets

PART 6 — MICRONUTRIENTS

5. Zinc

5.1. Chapter Summary
5.2. Zinc functions
5.3. Kinetics and body distribution
5.4. Absorption
5.5. Ingestion recommendation
5.6. Determination of zinc nutritional status
5.7. Adaptations in case of low zinc intake
5.8. Population studies in vegetarians
5.9. Zinc content in food
5.10. IVU position on zinc in vegetarian diets

6. Iodine
6.1. Chapter Summary
6.2. From the history of iodine to salt enrichment
6.3. Recommended intake
6.4. Iodine functions in the human body
6.5. Iodine excess
6.6. Iodine metabolism
6.6.1. Thyroid hormone production
6.6.2. Metabolic response to low iodine intake
6.7. Foods and nutrients that theoretically can affect thyroid hormone production
6.8. Iodine sources
6.9. Vegetarian feeding and iodine deficiency
6.10. IVU position on iodine in vegetarian diets
 

PART 7 — ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS

1. Chapter Summary
2. Antinutrients: beneficial actions and nutritional care
3. Lectins
4. Oxalates
5. Bociogenic substances
6. Phytoestrogens
7. Phytates
8. Tannins
9. IVU position on antinutritional factors
 

PART 8 - BIBLIOGRAPHY


PART 9 — CALCULATED GLOBAL MENUS
1. African
2. Brazilian
3. Chinese
4. European
5. Indian
6. North American

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Detailed information

The Guide presents in depth information of all biochemistry and physiology related to nutrients and is directed towards diagnosis and treatment.

The most complete Vegan Guide ever made available  

It comprises more than 500 pages, over 700 scientific references and 30 days of recipes from various countries calculated..

Guide Prepared by the International Vegetarian Union (IVU)

Marly Winckler - Chair of IVU

Marly Winckler is a sociologist, founder, and president of the Brazilian Vegetarian Society (SVB) from 2003 to 2015, now honorary president and member of the Board of Directors. Chair of the International Vegetarian Union (IVU).

Presentation

The International Vegetarian Union's Vegan Nutrition Guide for Adults was developed by our Department of Medicine and Nutrition to provide scientifically based information that serves as a basis for medical and nutritional conduct worldwide. Structured with great scientific rigor, after analyzing more than 700 indexed scientific articles, this work offers elements for the health professional to support those who adopt a vegan diet in a healthy and safe way. IVU's Vegan Nutrition Guide demystifies misguided basic food concepts and teaches healthcare professionals how to deal with vegetarian patients. We hope with this material, distributed for free, to support the prescription of a more ethical, compassionate, healthy and sustainable diet.

— Marly Winckler



Author

Professor Dr Eric Slywitch - Director of the Department of Medicine and Nutrition at IVU

Doctor; Master and PhD in Nutrition Sciences (UNIFESP-EPM) in the area of Metabolic Evaluation of Vegetarians and Omnivores; Specialist in Nutrology (ABRAN), Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (BRASPEN); Postgraduate in Clinical Nutrition (GANEP) and Endocrinology (ISMD); Director of the Department of Medicine and Nutrition of IVU and the Brazilian Vegetarian Society (SVB).

Presentation

The greatest positive effect on health, whether in prevention or in the treatment of chronic non-communicable diseases, is obtained by increasing the consumption of plant foods in its entire form added to the substantial reduction, or total exclusion, of animal products and by-products from the human diet. However, the academic training of health professionals from many universities around the world does not include information on how to develop food without meat and animal derivatives. With this, it is natural that there is fear of not knowing how to evaluate and conduct individuals with a vegetarian/vegan diet and, due to misinformation on what is in the subject, they are given the possibility of encouraging to follow a food system that brings positive changes to health and quality of life. The objective of this work is to bring students and health professionals the necessary tools so that they can approach vegetarianism in a scientific way, based on more than 700 indexed publications.

— Eric Slywitch

Collaborators

Professor Dr Cynthia Schuck Paim
Contributed data on the link between animal production and global health and reviewed the chapter on animal supplementation. Biologist; Postdoctoral Studies (USP and Oxford); Master in Evolutionary Ecology (USP); PhD in Zoology (Oxford); Director of the Global Health Department of IVU and Scientific and Environmental Coordinator of the Brazilian Vegetarian Society (SVB).


Débhora Cristina Pereira de Medeiros
Contributed to the structuring of the Brazilian menu. Clinical nutritionist; Postgraduate in Functional Clinical Nutrition, Biochemistry and Nutrigenomics, Functional Sports Nutrition and Functional Phytotherapy; Specialized in Metabolic and Nutritional Evaluation with emphasis on interpretation of laboratory tests from omnivorous to vegetarian with Dr. Eric Slywitch; postgraduate professor in vegetarian nutrition.

Maria Julia Cauduro Rosa
Contributed to the structuring of the African, Chinese, and European menu. Clinical Nutritionist; Master's student in Human Nutrition (NMS-PT); Postgraduate in nutrition and aesthetics; Specialized in metabolic and nutritional evaluation with emphasis on interpretation of laboratory tests from omnivorous to vegetarian with Dr. Eric Slywitch; postgraduate professor in vegetarian nutrition.

Marise Berg
Contributed to the structuring of the Indian menu. Clinical Nutritionist; postgraduate in functional and nutrigenomic foods with extension in Ayurveda; specialized in intestinal modulation and metabolic and nutritional evaluation with emphasis on interpretation of laboratory tests from omnivorous to vegetarian with Dr Eric Slywitch.

Milena Dias Brandão
Contributed to the structuring of the North American menu. Clinical and Hospital Nutritionist (Central Institute of the Hospital das Clínicas, FMUSP); Postgraduate in Clinical Nutrition (GANEP), vegetarian nutrition (The Fullness/Brazilian Vegetarian Society) and eating disorders (AMBULIM - Institute of Psychiatry of FMUSP); Specialized in metabolic and nutritional evaluation with emphasis on interpretation of laboratory tests from omnivorous to vegetarian with Dr. Eric Slywitch; postgraduate professor in clinical nutrition and vegetarian nutrition.

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